The Passing of Domenico Losurdo

On 28 June, 2018, Domenico Losurdo passed away after a brief period of brain cancer. He was only 76 and his death is a shock to many who have come to appreciate his work and his person. An official announcement from the secretary of the Communist Party of Italy (PCI) can be found here (see also here). Indeed, Losurdo enthusiastically joined the re-established the PCI, after it had been dissolved back in 1991.

Many are the dimensions of his contribution to Marxist philosophy and history, with the best outline of his core positions provided in an article by Stefano Azzarà (he has also published a book building upon Losurdo’s work). I do not wish to cover all of these issues here, but rather focus on the significant contribution Losurdo has made to my thoughts. I do this not in terms of a self-serving enterprise, but as a recognition of the insights of which he was capable.

The first book of his I read was Stalin: The History and Critique of a Black Legend. Initially published in Italian in 2008, it has been translated into German, Spanish and French (not English – I will return to this anomaly). I read the French translation and it was a stunning experience. Here was the account of how Stalin’s reception moved from widespread appreciation of the practical and theoretical contribution he had made to the construction of socialism, to one of systematic demonization. Given the framework in which many perceive Stalin today, the book may initially seem like a one-sided effort in praise of Stalin. It is far from such a work, for it is no air-brushed account. Instead, it makes a careful and balanced assessment of not merely mistakes made on the way but more the significant achievements – which are so often just forgotten or dismissed.

But let me come back to the lack of an English translation of the Stalin book. Some works have indeed been translated, on Hegel, Heidegger, liberalism, class struggle, non-violence and war and revolution. They have been well-received, with their careful research and withering criticisms. But when a petition was launched to request one or two of the major left-wing publishers to produce an English version, it was met with the comment that it would ‘tarnish’ Losurdo’s reputation. So a sanitised version of Losurdo is fine, suitable for a curiously imperialist version of ‘Western’ Marxism, but one that actually represents his work is not. Indeed, by the time of his death he had published scores of books in Italian, of which only a handful have made their way into English. The time will come when most of his material is indeed available to a wider audience in what has become – for a time and for specific historical reasons – the lingua franca. Then perhaps his full impact will be felt, shaking up many ‘orthodoxies’.

However, the major insights for me have come from his observations on China. I do not mean the tendency in some quarters to focus on Mao Zedong as the last true Chinese communist (you can find this still today among some ‘Maoists’ or maopai as the Chinese call them, with a distinctly negative tone). No, I mean his deep appreciation and understanding of Deng Xiaoping and the ‘reform and opening up’ – now celebrating forty years. Above all, Deng Xiaoping was deeply Marxist in a Chinese context and there are significant continuities from Mao to Deng. How is the ‘reform and opening up’ Marxist? There are many aspects, but at its core is the shrewd assessment that thus far the means of production had been relatively neglected in China’s effort to construct socialism. Most efforts had been directed at the relations of production, focusing on socialist equality and collective endeavour. This is all very well, but if everyone is equal simply because they are poor, few would see the benefit. So Deng and those working with him began to emphasise another dimension of Marxism: the need to unleash the forces of production. The results have truly been stunning, with a socialist market economy, the lifting of more than 700 million out of poverty (the World Bank puts it at 850 million), and so on. In an interview published in 2013, Domenico mentions the sustained anti-poverty drive as part of the ‘incredible success’ of Deng’s policies: ‘infrastructures worthy of a first world economy, growth in the process of industrialisation from its coast areas to its inland areas, rapid incrementation of salaries for several years and a growing concern for environmental issues’. He goes on: ‘By focusing on the key role of the achievement in the safekeeping of independence and of national sovereignty, and by encouraging the old colonies to pursue their own economic independence, China can today be seen as the centre of the anti-colonial revolution – which began in the 20th Century and is still in process under its different guises to this day. And by reminding ourselves of the pivotal role the public sphere should play in any economy, China constitutes an alternative in opposition to the economic liberalism and to the consensus dictated by Washington’.

It is all very well to read such thoughts, but the point came home to me in a conversation we had in Shanghai less than two years ago. In the midst of the bustle, traffic, advertising, shops, and clear economic drive of the place, Domenico said, ‘I am happy with this. This is what socialism can do!’ To my quizzical look, he replied with a smile, ‘I am strongly in favour of the reform and opening up’.

Ultimately, it was the conversations we had in September of 2016 that remain with me. Many others knew him far better than me, but I had invited him to participate in a conference on Chinese Marxism in Beijing, after which we travelled together to another and very different conference in Shanghai. While the first was constructive, with scholars from China and abroad engaging in creative discussions, the second was divisive, with most of the foreigners feeling they could come to China and tell these ‘wayward’ Chinese Marxists how they had it all wrong.

So Domenico and I talked. We did so on trains, buses, walking, a cup of tea (which he prefers because of tea’s inherent slowing down of time, inviting you to sip and talk and pour another). He had noticed my review of his Stalin book, so we discussed the Soviet Union. He told me he had first visited China in 1972, as the leader of a young Italian ‘Friends of China’ group. He liked to come here as often as possible, pleased indeed to see the construction of socialism leaping ahead. As we came to realise how much we had in common, he pointed out, ‘We are of the mainstream, but we must be patient’. Yes indeed, the mainstream, from Marx and Engels, through Lenin and Stalin, to Mao, Deng and indeed Xi Jinping. Part of a living tradition. Which of course means that the myopia of ‘Western’ Marxist efforts to excise many parts of the mainstream smacks a little too much of utopian revisionism (as his final book did indeed argue).

At one point, he asked about my daily patterns, for we both enjoy writing immensely. I spoke of quiet days of writing, at whatever home I happened to be, of ocean swimming, of Chinese study. He said, ‘I usually go for a walk of an hour or two, around the countryside, and perhaps talk with some friends. After I return home, I answer mail and I write’. He smiled, ‘I am a bit of a stakhanovite when it comes to writing’.

But he also said his life feels very ‘provincial’, with all of the European associations. ‘We prefer to speak of the countryside or “the bush”’, I said. ‘I am a country boy, from “the bush,” and I much prefer it to the city’. He said, ‘Yes, that is a much better word, countryside – “the bush”’.

We will miss him, as will ‘the bush’ around Urbino.

20 thoughts on “The Passing of Domenico Losurdo

  1. Very sad news indeed. I have been wondering however, isn’t there a Chinese press that could take up the publication of ‘Stalin’ in English? Sure, it will probably receive less attention from the Western left than if it were published by a respectable outfit like Verso, but it seems to me that the true value of an English translation would be that it would bring the work to all those people in Asia, Africa and South America who can’t read French/German/Italian. It doesn’t seem to me all that important to publish the book with a US/UK based press.

    1. Agreed, since the global possibilities are shifting quite rapidly. One option, which I did suggest to the petitioners, is to make use of Springer China. This is the largest branch of an international publishing outfit in China, with editorial autonomy. Their primary mandate is to publish works by Chinese scholars and those based in China (like myself), but they do so in English. Why? A major emphasis by the government is for people at all levels to ‘tell China’s story’ to the world (the recent event at SOAS is but one of many, many examples). My primary resource for English language material from a Chinese perspective comes from Springer publications. For example, one of the best books on a Chinese Marxist approach to human rights is by Sun Pinghua, published in 2014. There is a catch: currently Springer (which recently absorbed Palgrave Macmillan) publishes first in hardback at a hefty price (but one can often find a pdf online), leaving the paperback until a year or two later. I can see this practice changing and will ask my contact here in Beijing about it. She was the one who published my Stalin book and is keen for more material.

      1. Perhaps it is time for Verso to ‘seek truth from facts’ and ‘keep with the times’, as Chinese Marxists – like Xi Jinping – like to say (going back to Mao and Deng).

      2. It is impossible for Verso to do so, because Verso is a publishing business selling to the market of the anglophone left. Their customers expect to be told that even though their politics has been a complete failure, it’s at least not as bad as ‘Stalinism’ ie the historically concrete form of 20th century communism.

  2. Something I’ve been long curious about: Have any of Losurdo’s books been translated into chinese? What do chinese marxists think of him?

    1. I do not know about books, but will check. Many of his articles have been translated and published, and he was always keen to get here and give talks and engage in discussion. Actually, his approach has greater affinity with the vast majority of Marxist scholars in China (keeping in mind Xi Jinping’s emphasis that all scholarship should be undertaken within a Marxist framework). For example, his approach to Stalin seems quite normal here, assessing the achievements and mistakes.

      1. Relatedly he once remarked that he agreed with Xi Jinping’s opposition to “Both forms of historical revisionism/nihilism – condemnation and demonization of the Mao era; and the second, the condemnation and demonization of Deng Xiaoping,” which he went on to call “instruments of imperialist and capitalist war”.

      2. Thanks. I take it part of the reason he isn’t that well-known is because his thinking is already common over there?

    2. I have just returned from Shanghai, where – among other things – I talked at length with a long-time comrade. She was shocked to hear of Losurdo’s death, for she had invited both of us for a series of lectures not so long ago. I asked her about Losurdo’s impact in China (she is publishing a lengthy interview done with him back in later 2016). She said his work has had a huge impact, although it is limited to the English translations, which people here read. The Hegel book has fed in a major way into local debates, and his book on liberalism has been very well-received indeed. But she singled out his book on class struggle as the most influential, since it has shifted debates in China over this crucial reality.

  3. Very good article professor Boer!

    I’m brazilian, and i’m proud to say that Losurdo is translated in portuguese! Here in Brazil, we have almost all his works and articles translated, and amongst the left, he’s well known and read! Lots of brazilian leftist press paid homage to his death.

    He was my main reference and I’m really sad about his death.

  4. As the creator of the petition, I would like to say thank you once again for bringing it up. And in light of the comments here, I will get into contact with Springer to see what can be done. Though if anyone else is interested, here is a link to it, which has received a huge surge of support over the last 48 hours, jumping to almost 200 signatures in that timeframe.

    And finally and more importantly, a great reminiscing, Professor. I only have the only e-mail he sent me, to which he called me a friend and comrade, and said he was grateful that I set the petition up, *and* to contact you about it. So when I heard the news, I bawled my eyes out, because in some strange way, it felt personal to me.

    Thank you again Professor Boer.

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