Chinese Marxism

This page contains links to a number of items relating to Chinese Marxism. They are unpublished papers and the link will take you to a pdf download. These items may be seen as supplements to the list of publications, where published material on Chinese Marxism may be found.

Before beginning one’s study of Chinese Marxism, it is worthwhile to recall Mao Zedong’s observation, made while adressing Chinese students in Moscow in 1957:

Some foreigners say that our ideological reform is brainwashing. As I see it, they are correct in what they say. It is washing brains, that’s what it is! This brain of mine was washed to become what it is. After I joined the revolution, [my brain] slowly washed, washed for several decades. What I received before was all bourgeois education, and even some feudal education … At that time, none of us knew anything about how the Chinese revolution was to be promoted!

Washing one’s brain: this is precisely what anyone outside China needs to do before beginning the process of understanding Chinese Marxism.

As Mao put it at around the same time: ‘Not to have a correct political orientation is like not having a soul’.

Further material:

Xi Jinping

‘Xi Jinping is one of the strongest and most capable revolutionary leaders I have met in my life’ (Fidel Castro, 2014).

  • ‘Opening Up New Frontiers for Marxist Political Economy in Contemporary China’ (2020). This is an important article by Xi Jinping concerning the central role of Marxist Political Economy in shaping the 14th five-year plan. It was originally published in Qiushi (Seeking Truth) journal – download Chinese here, and English translation here.
  • ‘Xi Jinping on Marx: Reading the Speech from Marx’s 200th Birthday’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Xi Jinping Thought’ (2017) – download here.
  • ‘Celebrating Hong Kong’s Return: Xi Jinping’s Speech’ (2017) – download here.
  • ‘Views from the Common People: Appreciating Xi Jinping’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Celebrating 70 Years of the New China: A Foreigner’s Perspective’ (2019) – download here.

Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

‘Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is Socialism, and not some other -ism’ – Xi Jinping (2012).

NB: For an outline and draft chapters of a book entitled Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, see the separate page with that title.

  • ‘Discovering Chinese Socialism: A Personal Account’ (2017) – download here.
  • ‘A Dialectical Leap?’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Chinese Trust in the Government’ (2019) – download here.
  • ‘Why Is Chinese Governance Better?’ (2019) – download here.
  • ‘Grassroots Consultative Socialist Democracy (2020) – download here.
  • ‘Non-Politicised Elections’ (2020) – download here.
  • ‘The Greening of Beijing’ (2019) – download here.
  • ‘Core Socialist Values’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Why Would One Join the Communist Party of China?’ (2015) – download here.
  • ‘Origins of the Belt and Road Initiative’ (2018) – download here.

Important Documents from the CPC Central Committee

  • ‘Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China’ (1981) – download Chinese here, and English translation here. A crucial text that was three years in the making, containing a balanced assessment of Mao Zedong’s achievement (primary) and his mistakes (secondary). On the latter, the resolution includes a careful and astute assessment of the deviation of the Cultural Revolution.
  • ‘Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Part of China on Some Issues Concerning the Establishment of a Socialist Market Economic Structure’ (1993) – download Chinese here, and English translation here. This comprehensive decision enacted in detail Deng Xiaoping’s proposal for a socialist market economy as a component in China’s overall socialist system. Importantly, the socialist market economy did not do away with a planned economy, but became another component alongside with and complementary to the planned economy.
  • ‘Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening the Reform’ (2013) – download Chinese here, and English translation here. This is a key text that lays out the agenda from the beginning of Xi Jinping’s tenure as chairman.
  • ‘Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of Socialist Consultative Democracy’ (2015) – download Chinese here, and unofficial English translation here. This text shows how comprehensive the program of consultative democracy is in China, and how much hard work is going into strengthening this approach. It works alongside other components of the socialist democratic system.

State Council Information Office

Listed below are some of the more important White Papers issued by the State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. These White Papers – in both Chinese and English – may be found at the SCIO’s website (here).

  • Building Political Democracy in China (2005) – download Chinese here, and English translation here. This text is a full statement of China’s socialist democratic system of governance, covering the National People’s Congress (CPC), multi-party consultative democracy, minority nationalities, grassroots democracy, socialist human rights, rule of law, and internal goverance in the CPC.
  • The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang (2019) – download Chinese here, and English translation here.

One Country, Two Systems

  • ‘Taiwan Special Administrative Region’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Deng Xiaoping on Hong Kong: The Relevance of Contradiction Analysis’ (2020) – download here.

Socialist Rule of Law

  • ‘China’s Socialist Rule of Law’ (2020) – download here.
  • ‘Demystifying the Chinese Social Credit System (and Why Everyone Likes It) (2019) – download here.

Chinese Marxist Promotion of Human Rights

  • ‘Between Western and Chinese Marxist Approaches to Human Rights’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Statement of Fact: China Upholds and Promotes Human Rights in Accord with Internationally Agreed Norms’ (2019) – download here.
  • ‘What About the Uyghur?’ (2020) – download here.
  • ‘Why Xinjiang? Why Now?’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘Mao’s Liberation of Tibet’ (2018) – download here.
  • ‘What About the Chinese Workers?’ (2018) – download here.

Publications in Chinese Newspapers

  • ‘What Have We Learned, and What Will the World Look Like?’ Guangming Daily, 12 May, 2020. Download Chinese here, and English here.
  • ‘World’s Top Marxism Expert has a Crush on China’s Socialist Model’, Xinhua News, 6 May, 18. Download Chinese here, and English here.
  • ‘Contradiction in Chinese Marxist Philosophy’. Marxist Studies Monthly, 26 May, 2016. Download Chinese here.
  • ‘Contradiction: The Key to Understanding the Sinification of Marxism’. Chinese Social Sciences Today, 12 April, 2017. Download Chinese here, and English here.
  • ‘Fundamental Limitations of US Democracy’. People’s Daily, 15 August, 2015. Download Chinese here, and English here.

‘Western’ Misperceptions

  • ‘Believing in Ghosts: Unravelling the “China Threat” Narrative (2019) – download here.
  • ‘Codes and Conspiracies, or, Trying to Understand the Infantile Disorder of “Left-Wing” Communism’ (2018) – download here.
  • Narratives of Betrayal: A ‘Western’ Trope (2017) – download here.
  • ‘Losurdo on Hong Kong and “June 4”: Colonialism by Other Means and a Failed “Colour Revolution”‘ (2019) – download here.
  • ‘Lousy Evidence: On the Uselessness of “Defector” Testimony’ (2019) – download here.
  • ‘How Anti-China Stories are Concocted’ (2020) – download here.

Other Material

  • ‘Ideals in the Mountains: Hiking with Mao and Friends’ (2014) – download here.
  • ‘Lenin in China’ (2012) – download here.
  • ‘The Passing of Domenico Losurdo’ (2018) – download here.